ABSTRACT: After theoretical discovery of magnetic vortices by Abrikosov, which received 2003 Nobel Prize in Physics, vortex pinning in type II superconductors has been an important topic of research for high critical current densities in applied magnetic fields desired for a variety of applications in electric and electronic devices and systems. The small vortex core size of a few nanometer comparable to the coherence length in high temperature superconductors (HTSs) has prompted an intensive research in development of nanoscale artificial pinning centers (APCs) in so-called HTS nanocomposites. Exciting results of much enhanced in-field critical current densities and pinning force densities have been achieved. This talk intends to highlight the progress made recently in HTS nanocomposites towards controllable generation of APCs with desired morphologies, dimension, concentration, and pinning efficiency for targeted applications. The future research in HTS nanocomposites to meet the need of practical applications will also be discussed.